Energy Industry Articles This Week
Written and Edited by Debora Martogi
Check out the list of articles this week below. Many thanks to Eliza Ganguly (Master’s Student), Serhii Kryvenko (PhD Student), and Dr. Berna Hascakir (Associate Professor). If you would like to share and be featured in the next upcoming weeks, feel free to share them through the following form.
10 Steps in Pandas to Process LAS File and Plot (part1)
– [link] R. A. Mardani (March 30, 2020)
The following article provides some tips and tricks to prepare well log data formatted in Log ASCII Standard (LAS) to be plotted in Python. The article includes steps to read the LAS data, inspect the data, select columns (variables) to be stored, addressing missing data, dropping rows, collecting data statistics, data filtering, adding a column, data indexing, and finally plotting. Check out the full article here.
Petrophysics: Gamma Ray Normalization in Python
– [link] A. McDonald (October 18, 2020)
The following article describes a normalization technique typically performed to rescale or recalibrate gamma-ray logs. This is also applicable to neutron porosity, bulk density, sonic, and spontaneous potential well logs. Normalization is typically done to make comparisons between multiple wells. For full coverage of the normalization algorithm, please review the article here.
Fracture Hits in Unconventional Reservoirs: A Critical Review
– [SPE-203839] I. Gupta, C. Rai, D. Devegowda, D.H. Sondergeld (2020)
This manuscript documents a comprehensive literature review of fracture hits, key factors affecting fracture hits, and recommended strategies to manage fracture hits. Wells are classified into child wells (drilled near pre-existing active/ inactive wells), parent wells (drilled without nearby pre-existing active/ inactive wells), and sibling wells (drilled at the same time on a multiwell pad). Fracture hits can have a negative impact on production and economics of lease development for child well, while could either be positive or negative on parent well. An increase in fracture hits has been observed due to more wells being drilled, tighter well spacing, increased infill drilling, bigger completions, and more natural fractures are observed in low-permeability unconventional reservoirs due to hydrocarbon generation. Key factors affecting the impact of fracture hits can be unchangeable factors (i.e., in-situ stresses, geomechanical, and petrophysical properties) and can also be changeable factors (i.e., well spacing, completion design, well scheduling, preloading, and refracturing). The authors also provided some recommendations to manage fracture hits before, during, and after drilling and completions.
Characterization of complex permittivity for consolidated core samples by utilization of mixing rules
– [link] M. Morte & Dr. B. Hascakir
This article highlights a methodology to characterize the complex permittivity of core samples to estimate the microwave penetration depth in the reservoir. In doing so, mixing rules are implemented to estimate the bulk response of the material from the individual responses of the constituent components. The dielectric response of the pore spaces in the dry core sample is estimated based on known dielectric properties of air. The rock matrix response is then back-calculated and used as an intermediary for fluid-saturated core samples. A more complex mixing rule is necessary for highly saturated samples. The agreement is observed between the experimentally obtained and predicted mixing rule values.
More publications from Dr. Hascakir’s group can be found here.
Disclaimer: The Well Log is a non-profit publication aimed “purely” to educate students at Texas A&M University and beyond on information pertinent to the petroleum engineering industry. All articles are written by student volunteers based on information obtained through online sources and SPE publications. If you are the owner of any materials we cited and would like us to remove it from our publications, please contact The Well Log Editors at firstname.lastname@example.org